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There are different varieties of articulations in the trunk.

Articulations of the vertebral column

Joints between the bodies are amphiarthroses. Joints between the neural arches by means of the articular processes are diarthroses of the arthrodial variety.

The Ligaments of the Bodies.

The anterior common ligament : a broad band of fibres, extending along front of bodies of vertebras, from axis to sacrum. It consists of two sets of fibres, superficial and deep ; the former extending between the bodies of two or more vertebras, the latter only between adjacent vertebras. The fibres are attached principally to the intervertebral substances.

The posterior common ligament is within the spinal canal, and extends along back of bodies of the vertebras from axis to sacrum, being broad opposite the intervertebral discs, and narrow opposite the bodies, except in the neck, where it is as wide as the bodies. It is attached to the discs and contiguous parts of the bodies of the vertebrae.

The intervertebral substances, found between the vertebrae from axis to sacrum. The circumference of each consists of layers of oblique parallel fibres of white fibrous tissue, enclosing a central part of pulpy elastic material. They are thickest in the lumbar region, and they give the peculiar curves to the column by their differences in thickness.

The Ligaments of the Lamina.

The ligamenta subflava connect the laminae of the vertebrae from the axis to the sacrum. Each ligament is attached to the anterior inferior edge of the lamina above, and to the posterior superior edge of the lamina below.

The Ligaments of the Articular Processes.

Capsular ligaments surround the articular processes, those in the cervical region being the loosest. Each is lined by a synovial membrane.

The Ligaments of the Spinous Processes.

The interspinous ligaments extend in all regions of the vertebral column between the spinous processes of the vertebras, running from root to apex.

The supraspinous ligament: a fibrous cord, joining the tips of the vertebrae, and extending from the seventh cervical to the first sacral.

The ligamentum nuchse continues the supraspinous ligament upwards. It consists of a superficial layer, extending from the spine of the seventh cervical to the external occipital protuberance, and a deep layer attached to the spines of the cervical vertebrae and the occipital crest.

The Ligaments of the Transverse Processes.

Intertransverse ligaments extend between the transverse processes, often absent in the cervical, thin in the lumbar, but round and well marked in the dorsal region.

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