The pancreas is an exocrine and endocrine gland.

Aspect

The surface is irregular, thoughr at the palpation, friable, pink coloured.

Disposition

Transversely lengthen with the front of the vertebral column on an oblic crânial and left side direction.
It is in contact with the lumbar column, therefore particularly exposed with the abdominal traumatisms :

  • pancreatitis risk
  • pancreatic fistula.

4 portions:

The head of the pancreas

Coarse form of quadrilateral.
In contact with the duodenum. This pancreas rests on the third duodenum while being prolonged by a small strip, the process incinatus (or small pancreas).

This last is crossed by the vessels mesenteric.

On a sagittal cut, one can see that the pancreas goes up on the first duodenum by the tuber retro duodénal (or omental, bus continues with small the omentum).

The isthmus of the pancreas (or collar of the pancreas)

It is a narrowed portion of the pancreas, with depends on its caudal edge which presents a true notch.

  • the body of pancreas, with an irregular surface.
  • the tail of pancreas which is a frayed strip.

Measurements:

Length: 15 to 18 cm.
Height:

  • 6 cm on the level of the head
  • 3 cm on the level of the tail

Thickness: 2 cm it is a very flattened gland.

The duodéno-pancreatic block

The duodenum and the pancreas by its head are indissociable as much on the anatomical level that pathological, because of 4 elements:

  • their intimate reports/ratios: their embedding
  • their common péritonéal report/ratio
  • their common vascularization
  • ways pancreatic bring together themselves in the duodenum.

There are two pancreatic ways:

  • The pancreatic channel the main thing or channel of Wirsung extends over the entire length from the pancreas and throws itself on the internal edge of the second duodenum in a dilated zone: the hépato-pancreatic bulb. Also the channel is thrown to it cholédoque.

This bulb makes covered on the level of the mucous membrane duodénale on the level of the major papilla duodénale (or greater duodenal papilla).

  • The second pancreatic channel

Drain only the head of the pancreas and throws itself directly in the internal edge of the duodenum by a projection: the major papilla duodénale (or minor duodenal papilla).

Problem: there is antagonism between pancreatic liquid and the hepatic bile, the liver would not support to receive the pancreatic liquid, and the pancreas to receive the bile. There is thus a system of sphincter anti-backward flow, specific to each channel. To reinforce the whole, there is a sphincter common to the level of the bulb.

 

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