Currently, there is a lack of data relating to glycemic parameters and their relationship with C-peptide (CP) and proinsulin (PI) during the partial remission period (PRP) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D).
The aim of this study was to evaluate glycemic parameters in children with T1D who are in the PRP using intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring systems (isCGMS) and to investigate any relationships between CP and PI levels.
The study included 21 children who were in the PRP and 31 children who were not. A cross-sectional, non-randomized study was performed. Demographic, clinical data were collected and 2 week- isCGMS data were retrieved.
The Serum CP showed a positive correlation with time-in-range in the PRP (p:0.03), however PI showed no correlations with glycemic parameters in both periods. The Serum CP and PI levels and the PI:CP ratio were significantly higher in the PRP group than in the non-PRP group. In the non-PRP group, the PI level was below 0.1 pmol/L (which is the detectable limit) in only 2 of the 17 cases as compared with none in the PRP group. Similarly, only 2 of the 17 children in the non-PRP group had CP levels of less than 0.2 nmol / L, although both had detectable PI levels. Overall time-in-range (3. 9-1.0 mmol/L) was significantly high in the PRP group. In contrast, the mean sensor glucose levels, time spent in hyperglycemia, and coefficient of variation levels (32.2vs 40.5%) were significantly lower in the PRP group.
Although the mean glucose and time in range during the PRP was better than that in the non-PRP group, the glycemic variability during this period was not as low as expected. While the CP levels showed an association with TIR during the PRP, there was no correlation between PI levels and glycemic parameters. Further studies are needed to determine if PI might prove to be a useful parameter in clinical follow-up.