The femur (French: le fémur) or thigh bone is the largest and longest bone in the skeleton, and transmits the entire weight of the trunk from the hip to the tibia. In the erect posture, it inclines from above downward and medially, approaching at the lower extremity its fellow of the opposite side, but separated from it above by the width of the true pelvis. It presents for examination a superior extremity, including the head, neck, and two trochanters, an inferior extremity, expanded laterally into two condyles, and a shaft.
The pelvis is composed of four bones: the two coxal or hip-bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx. The hip-bones form the lateral and anterior boundaries, meeting each other in front to form the pubic symphysis [symphysis ossium pubis]; posteriorly they are separated by the sacrum. The interior of the pelvis is divided into the major and minor pelvic cavity.
The cervical vertebrae (french: vertèbres cervicales) are seven in number; they are smaller than those in the other regions, which results from the size of the body and processes being less than that of the corresponding parts in the dorsal and lumbar classes. The vertebral foramen is of a triangular form, and larger proportionally than in the other classes.
This is the u-shaped bone, so named from some resemblance to the Greek letter v. It is occasionally called the lingual bone, from its important relations with the tongue; it is situated at the base of the tongue, and may be felt between the chin and the thyroid cartilage. It consists of a body, two cornua, and two cornicula.
There are two bones named malar, (os malse, malare, jugale, zygomaticum.) Each is common to the face and orbit, forming the most prominent point of the side of the former, and the greater part of the outer border of the latter. Its form is quadrangular.
These bones of the coccyx (French: coccyx), when united together, which is usually the case in advanced life, are supposed to resemble a cuckoo's bill and are therefore called coccygeal. Most commonly there are four of them, sometimes but three; in a few instances five have been found. They diminish gradually in size from above downwards, which gives them, when taken together, a pyramidal form. As they are placed in a continuous line with the inferior third of the sacrum, they form a slightly concave surface anteriorly, a convex one posteriorly.
The sacrum, much the largest piece of the vertebral column, is placed, when the body is in the erect position, at the superior and posterior part of the pelvis, beneath the last lumbar vertebra, above the coccyx, and between the ossa innominata, between which it is inserted, in some measure like a keystone into an arch.
As in the intervertebral articulations, so in the union of the first portion of the sacrum with the last lumbar vertebra, there are two sets of joints -viz. (a) Class. -False Synchondrosis. (b) Class. -Diarthrosis. Subdivision. -Arihrodia (a) a synchondrosis, between the bodies and intervertebral disc; and (b) a pair of arthrodial joints, between the articular processes. The union is effected by the following ligaments, which are common to the vertebral column: -(i) anterior, and (ii) posterior longitudinal; (iii) lateral or short vertebral; (iv) capsular; (v) ligamenta flava; (vi) supraspinous and (vii) interspinous ligaments. Two special accessory ligaments on either side, viz., the sacro-lumbar and the ilio-lumbar, connect the pelvis with the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae.
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