These articulations at the front of the thorax may be divided into four sets, viz.: The intersternal joints, or the union of the several parts of the sternum with one another. The costo -chondral joints, or the union of the ribs with their costal cartilages. The chondro-sternal joints, or the junction of the costal cartilages with the sternum. The interchondral joints, or the union of five costal cartilages (sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth) with one another.
These costo-vertebral articulations (French: articulations costo-vertébrales)consist of two sets: the capitular (costo-central): i.e., the articulation of the head of the rib with the vertebrae and the costo-transverse, or the articulation of the tubercle (of each of the first ten ribs) with the transverse process of the lower of the two vertebrae, with which the head of the rib articulates: i.e., the one bearing its own number, as the first rib with the first thoracic vertebra, the second rib with the second thoracic vertebra, and so on.
The metatarsus (Latin: ossa metatarsalia; French: les métatarses) consists of a series of five somewhat cylindrical bones. Articulated with the tarsus behind, they extend forward, nearly parallel with each other, to their anterior extremities, which articulate with the toes, and are numbered according to their position from great toe to small toe. Like the corresponding bones in the hand, each presents for examination a three-sided shaft, a proximal extremity termed the base, and a distal extremity or head. The shaft tapers gradually from the base to the head, and is slightly curved longitudinally so as to be convex on the dorsal and concave on the plantar aspect.
The tarsal bones [ossa tarsi] are grouped in two rows: - a proximal row, consisting of the talus and calcaneus, and a distal row, consisting of four bones which, enumerated from tibial side, are the first, second, and third cuneiform bones and the cuboid. Interposed between the two rows on the tibial side of the foot is a single bone, the navicular; on the fibular side the proximal and distal rows come into contact.
The tibia or shin-bone (French: le tibia)is situated at the front and medial side of the leg and nearly parallel with the fibula. Excepting the femur, it is the largest bone in the skeleton, and alone transmits the weight of the trunk to the foot. It articulates above with the femur, below with the tarsus, and laterally with the fibula. It is divisible into two extremities and a shaft.
The femur (French: le fémur) or thigh bone is the largest and longest bone in the skeleton, and transmits the entire weight of the trunk from the hip to the tibia. In the erect posture, it inclines from above downward and medially, approaching at the lower extremity its fellow of the opposite side, but separated from it above by the width of the true pelvis. It presents for examination a superior extremity, including the head, neck, and two trochanters, an inferior extremity, expanded laterally into two condyles, and a shaft.
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