The digestive apparatus includes the actual intestinal tract, taking those words in their widest sense, and according to its development this tract may be divided into four portions: The oral cavity; the foregut; the midgut; the hindgut.
After the theory of coction and crisis, that which prevails the most in the Hippocratic books, is the doctrine of the four elements, or the four elementary qualities, heat, cold, dryness and moisture, and the four cardinal humors, blood, bile, atrabile and phlegm. This doctrine was supposed to be an invention of the father of Greek medicine. Such is the opinion of all the commentators and historiographers, among others Galen, who extended and perfected it in his manner, and it reigned, exclusively, after him. The theory of four elements and four humors, harmonizes very well with
The occipital bone, (lat.: os occipitis, french: Os occipital) is situated at the posterior part of the base of the skull; broad behind, much narrowed before, of a trapezoid figure, presenting two surfaces, four borders, and four angles. To place the bone in its natural position, hold it so that the great foramen and the articulating processes beside it shall look directly downwards; the thick process in front of the foramen will then project forwards into the base of the Skull, Whilst the broad expanded part behind it arches upwards and a little forwards, forming the posterior wall of the Cavity.
Amongst the lumbar vertebrae, the fifth only is distinguishable by any peculiarity deserving of notice, its body being thicker anteriorly than posteriorly, and its transverse process short, thick, and rounded.
The vertebrae, or separate pieces of which the column is made up, are so named from their mobility (vertere, to turn). They are divided into true and false ; the former term being applied to those which remain separate in the adult, and retain their mobility; the latter to such as become united into one mass (viz. the sacrum), or degenerate as it were, and lose all the ordinary characters of vertebrae (viz. the coccyx).
We have seen that the first notions of Medicine go back to the earliest infancy of society, in all the countries of the world ; so that we may repeat the statement of Pliny, that if there exists any nation which, at any epoch of its history, was without physicians, there is not one in which we do not find some vestiges of Medicine.
The first dorsal vertebra is marked at each side by a complete articular surface for the first rib, and on its inferior border by a slight excavation, which receives half the head of the second : the upper articular processes are oblique, and the spinous more nearly horizontal than those below it.
This is a flat, thin, digastric muscle, extended from the occiput to the forehead (from which circumstance its name is derived), and placed immediately beneath the cranial integument, to which it closely adheres, at the same time that it rests upon the arch of the skull, over which it slides. It consists of two broad but short fleshy bellies, united by an intervening aponeurosis.
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