The knee is the largest joint in the body. It is rightly described as a ginglymoid joint, but there is also an arthrodial element; for, in addition to flexion and extension, there is a sliding backward and forward of the tibia upon the femoral condyles, as well as slight rotation round a vertical axis. It is one of the most superficial, and, as far as adaptation of the bony surfaces goes, one of the weakest joints, for in no position are the bones in more than partial contact.
All systems of the body are interrelated. A change in one system may affect all other systems in the body, with mild to devastating effects. A failure of urinary continence can be embarrassing and inconvenient, but is not life threatening. The loss of other urinary functions may prove fatal. A failure to synthesize vitamin D is one such example.
The coxal (innominate) bone or hip-bone (os coxae, French: os iliaque or os coxal) is a large, irregularly shaped bone articulated behind 'with the sacrum, and in front with its fellow of the opposite side, the two bones forming the anterior and side walls of the pelvis. The coxal bone consists of three parts, named ilium, ischium, and pubis, which, though separate in early life, are firmly united in the adult. The three parts meet together and form the acetabulum (or cotyloid fossa), a large, cup-like socket situated near the middle of the lateral surface of the bone for articulation with the head of the femur.
The vomer bone (Fench: le Vomer) is an irregular four-sided plate of bone constituting the lower portion of the nasal septum. It is usually described as resembling a ploughshare in shape. Each lateral surface is covered with the thick mucous membrane of the nasal sinus, and is traversed by a narrow but well-marked groove, which lodges the naso- palatine nerve from the spheno-palatine ganglion; hence it is sometimes called the naso-palatine groove.
The pharynx is a vertical, tubular passage, flattened anteroposteriorly, and extending from the base of the cranium above to the beginning of the esophagus below. Posteriorly, it is in contact with the bodies of the upper six cervical vertebrae.
The serratus anterior muscle (Latin: serratus magnus; French: muscle dentelé antérieur) - named from its serrated or saw-like anterior border and large size - is an irregular quadrilateral sheet curved to the shape of the side of the thorax. Its anterior attached border has a somewhat sinuous curve and arises from the side of the thorax by nine or ten digitations or teeth, which, by their saw-like appearance, give the muscle its name. The muscle may be divided into an upper, middle, and lower part.
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