Superficial fascia and fascia lata

 

Superficial fascia

The greater part of this is of loose adipose tissue, and, without any deep connections, is continuous with the superficial fascia of the abdomen and back. In the upper and front part of the thigh a deep layer of a mort membranous structure may be distinguished, and this has deep connections where the lower limb joins the trunk, being attached to Poupart's ligament, the crest the ilium, and the deep fascia just below its insertion into the rami of the pubeH and ischium. Below the inner half of Poupart's ligament several lymphatic glands are arranged longitudinally between these two layers of the superficial fascia.

The deep fascia or fascia lata

It is a very strong layer of fibrous tissue, the fibres oi which are arranged for the most part transversely as an aponeurosis of investment but many of them, especially upon the outer side where it is much thicker, art longitudinal, and serve for the insertion of important muscles. The whole of the deep fascia forms a strong cylindrical tube investing all the muscles of the thigh It is attached above, in the groin, to Poupart's ligament, where it blends with the aponeurosis of the external oblique ; on the outer side and behind, to the outei lip of the crest of the ilium, and to the lower part of the vertebral aponeurosis upon the inner side, to the border of the tuberosity and ascending ramus of tbt ischium, to the descending ramus of the pubes, the symphysis pubis, aiK the anterior lip of the crest of the pubes. Below, it becomes much thinner and is continuous with the deep fascia of the leg ; it has also a deep attach ment to the tuberosities of the tibia and the outer surface of the head of th( fibula. The thickening of its outer portion, which passes down like a tendon totht external tuberosity of the tibia, and is also attached to the outer side of th( ligamentum patella3, is called the ilio-tibial band. From the deep surfacf of this great cylindrical tube are given off various processes which assist in th( formation of the sheaths of some of the more superficial muscles. There are also three strong intermuscular septa, which extend from it to the linea aspera dividing the flexor, extensor, and adductor groups of muscles from one another .t the upper part of the thigh, below the inner third of Poupart's ligament, is the saphenous opening, for the passage of the internal saphenous vein, which, after running up the thigh in the superficial fascia, enters the deep femoral vein in this situation. This opening is not, as might have been expected from the character 'f these openings in other parts, a mere circular foramen. It is formed by the division of the fascia lata into two parts, which do not unite together again, but j,re inserted separately along the line of attachment of the lower limb to the trunk. It begins below the inner third of Poupart's ligament, and is of a somewhat )val shape, measuring about one inch from above downwards, and half to three-quarters of an inch from side to side. The lower border of the opening forms a well-defined edge which occupies the angle between the saphenous and femoral veins close to their point of junction. Externally, the fascia lata is attached above along the whole length of Poupart's ligament, and its free internal edge arches inwards towards the spine of the pubes in front of the femoral vein. This external and broad division of the upper part of the fascia lata is called its iliac portion, and the free edge which lies in front of the femoral vessels is known by the name of the falciform ligament. Internally, the fascia lata is in close contact with the pectineus muscle which lies beneath it, and with that muscle it dips beneath the femoral vein and the sheath of the vessels to be attached to the ilio- pectineal line. This internal division is called the pubic portion of the fascia lata. The deep layer of the superficial fascia stretches across the opening, and is firmly attached to the edge of the falciform ligament. From the numerous openings which give passage to the vessels and lymphatics, it is here called the cribriform fascia {crihrum being the Latin for a sieve).

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