These costo-vertebral articulations (French: articulations costo-vertébrales)consist of two sets: the capitular (costo-central): i.e., the articulation of the head of the rib with the vertebrae and the costo-transverse, or the articulation of the tubercle (of each of the first ten ribs) with the transverse process of the lower of the two vertebrae, with which the head of the rib articulates: i.e., the one bearing its own number, as the first rib with the first thoracic vertebra, the second rib with the second thoracic vertebra, and so on.
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The wrist-joint (Class. - Diarthrosis. Subdivision. - Condylarthrosis.) is formed by the union of the radius and articular disc above, articulating -with the navicular, lunate, and triquetral bones below; the ulna being excluded by the intervention of the articular disc. The radius and disc together present a smooth surface, slightly concave both from before backward, and from side to side, whilst the three bones of the carpus present a smooth, convex surface, made uniformly even by the interosseous ligaments which bind them together.
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There are two distinct sets of articulations in the vertebral column:
- Those between the bodies and intervertebral discs which form synchondroses and which are amphiarthrodial as regards movement.
- Those between the articular processes which form arthrodial joints.
The ligaments which unite the various parts may also be divided into two sets, viz. - immediate, or those that bind together parts which are in contact; and intermediate, or those that bind together parts which are not in contact.
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The radius is firmly united to the ulna by two joints, and an intermediate fibrous union, viz.:
- The superior radio-ulnar - whereat the head of the radius rotates within the radial notch and annular ligament.
- The union of the shafts - the mid radio-ulnar union.
- The inferior radio-ulnar - whereat the lower end of the radius rolls round the head of the ulna.
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As in the intervertebral articulations, so in the union of the first portion of the sacrum with the last lumbar vertebra, there are two sets of joints -viz. (a) Class. -False Synchondrosis. (b) Class. -Diarthrosis. Subdivision. -Arihrodia (a) a synchondrosis, between the bodies and intervertebral disc; and (b) a pair of arthrodial joints, between the articular processes. The union is effected by the following ligaments, which are common to the vertebral column: -(i) anterior, and (ii) posterior longitudinal; (iii) lateral or short vertebral; (iv) capsular; (v) ligamenta flava; (vi) supraspinous and (vii) interspinous ligaments. Two special accessory ligaments on either side, viz., the sacro-lumbar and the ilio-lumbar, connect the pelvis with the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae.
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The elbow-joint [articulatio cubiti] Class. - Diarthrosis. Subdivision. - Ginglymus.is a complete hinge, and, unlike the knee, depends for its security and strength upon the configuration of its bones rather than on the number, strength, or arrangement of its ligaments.
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