There are many research methods available to psychologists in their efforts to understand, describe, and explain behavior and the cognitive and biological processes that underlie it.

The visual system constructs a mental representation of the world around us.

Scientific research is a critical tool for successfully navigating our complex world. Without it, we would be forced to rely solely on intuition, other people’s authority, and blind luck.

Our auditory system converts pressure waves into meaningful sounds.

Previous sections of this chapter focused on classical and operant conditioning, which are forms of associative learning.

In the early part of the 20th century, Max Wertheimer published a paper demonstrating that individuals perceived motion in rapidly flickering static images —an insight that came to him as he used a child’s toy tachistoscope.

Does the name Ivan Pavlov ring a bell? Even if you are new to the study of psychology, chances are that you have heard of Pavlov and his famous dogs.

Vision and hearing have received an incredible amount of attention from researchers over the years.

The previous section of this chapter focused on the type of associative learning known as classical conditioning.

Visual and auditory stimuli both occur in the form of waves. Although the two stimuli are very different in terms of composition, wave forms share similar characteristics that are especially important to our visual and auditory perceptions.

Birds build nests and migrate as winter approaches. Infants suckle at their mother’s breast.

The difference between our perception and our sensation.

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