Osteology Bones

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The clavicle (French : la clavicule) is placed laterally at the anterior and upper part of the thorax, it completes ahead the thoracic belt, to which the member of the same name is attached.

The coxal (innominate) bone or hip-bone (os coxae, French: os iliaque or os coxal)  is a large, irregularly shaped bone articulated behind 'with the sacrum, and in front with its fellow of the opposite side, the two bones forming the anterior and side walls of the pelvis. The coxal bone consists of three parts, named ilium, ischium, and pubis, which, though separate in early life, are firmly united in the adult. The three parts meet together and form the acetabulum (or cotyloid fossa), a large, cup-like socket situated near the middle of the lateral surface of the bone for articulation with the head of the femur.

The humerus or arm-bone (french : humérus), the largest bone of the upper extremity, extends from the scapula to the bones of the fore-arm, with each of which it is articulated. Its direction is vertical, with an inclination inwards towards the lower end. Long and irregularly cylindrical in form, the humerus is divisible into a body and two extremities. 

The tibia or shin-bone (French: le tibia)is situated at the front and medial side of the leg and nearly parallel with the fibula. Excepting the femur, it is the largest bone in the skeleton, and alone transmits the weight of the trunk to the foot. It articulates above with the femur, below with the tarsus, and laterally with the fibula. It is divisible into two extremities and a shaft.

The femur (French: le fémur) or thigh bone is the largest and longest bone in the skeleton, and transmits the entire weight of the trunk from the hip to the tibia. In the erect posture, it inclines from above downward and medially, approaching at the lower extremity its fellow of the opposite side, but separated from it above by the width of the true pelvis. It presents for examination a superior extremity, including the head, neck, and two trochanters, an inferior extremity, expanded laterally into two condyles, and a shaft.

The pelvis is composed of four bones: the two coxal or hip-bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx. The hip-bones form the lateral and anterior boundaries, meeting each other in front to form the pubic symphysis [symphysis ossium pubis]; posteriorly they are separated by the sacrum. The interior of the pelvis is divided into the major and minor pelvic cavity.

The patella or knee-pan (French : la rotule), situated in front of the knee-joint, is a sesamoid bone, triangular in shape, developed in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris.

The tarsal bones [ossa tarsi] are grouped in two rows: - a proximal row, consisting of the talus and calcaneus, and a distal row, consisting of four bones which, enumerated from tibial side, are the first, second, and third cuneiform bones and the cuboid. Interposed between the two rows on the tibial side of the foot is a single bone, the navicular; on the fibular side the proximal and distal rows come into contact.

The fibula (French: fibula ; péroné)is situated on the lateral side of the leg and, in proportion to its length is the most slender of all the long bones. It is placed nearly parallel to the tibia with which it is connected above and below. In man it is a rudimentary bone and bears none of the weight of the trunk, but is retained on account of the muscles to which it gives origin and its participation in the formation of the ankle-joint. Like other long bones, it is divisible into a shaft and two extremities.

The metatarsus (Latin: ossa metatarsalia; French: les métatarses) consists of a series of five somewhat cylindrical bones. Articulated with the tarsus behind, they extend forward, nearly parallel with each other, to their anterior extremities, which articulate with the toes, and are numbered according to their position from great toe to small toe. Like the corresponding bones in the hand, each presents for examination a three-sided shaft, a proximal extremity termed the base, and a distal extremity or head. The shaft tapers gradually from the base to the head, and is slightly curved longitudinally so as to be convex on the dorsal and concave on the plantar aspect.

The tibia is the larger bone of the leg; it is situated on the inner side of, and nearly parallel with, the fibula. The upper extremity, or head, consists of two lateral eminences, or tuberosities.

The phalanges of the foot are the bones of the toes, and number in all fourteen. Except the great toe, each consists of three phalanges, distinguished as first (proximal), second and third (distal) ; in the great toe the second phalanx is absent.

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