These are two oblong bones situated in the middle line at the upper part of the face and forming the bridge of the nose. Each bone has two surfaces and four borders. The facial surface is concave from above downwards, but convex from side to side. Near its centre is a foramen for the transmission of a small tributary to the facial vein. The posterior or nasal surface is concave laterally and traversed by a longitudinal groove for the nasal branch of the ophthalmic nerve.

The humerus or arm-bone (french : humérus), the largest bone of the upper extremity, extends from the scapula to the bones of the fore-arm, with each of which it is articulated. Its direction is vertical, with an inclination inwards towards the lower end. Long and irregularly cylindrical in form, the humerus is divisible into a body and two extremities. 

These bones (often referred to as the bones of Bertin) are two hollow cones, flattened externally in three planes. They may be obtained as distinct ossicles about the fifth year. At this date they are wedged in between the under surface of the pre-sphenoid and the orbital and sphenoidal processes of the palate bone. The apex of the cone is directed backwards and appears near the vaginal process of the sphenoid. Of its three surfaces, the outer one is in relation with the spheno-maxillary fossa, and occasionally extends upwards between the sphenoid

The scapula (French : scapula, omoplate), is placed upon the upper and back part of the thorax, occupies the space from the second to the seventh rib, and forms the posterior part of the shoulder. Its form is irregularly triangular and flat. It presents for examination two surfaces, three borders, and three angles.

The mandible [mandibula] or lower jaw-bone is the largest and strongest bone of the face. It supports the mandibular teeth, and by means of a pair of condyles, moves on the skull at the mandibular fossae of the temporal bones. It consists of a horizontal portion — the body —  strongly curved, so as to somewhat resemble in shape a horseshoe, from the ends of which two branches or rami ascend almost at right angles.

The ulna, (French : ulnlna) is placed at the inner side of the forearm ; it is a long and rather irregular bone, larger at the upper than at the lower extremity, a conformation the reverse of that which obtains in the radius.


The clavicle (French : la clavicule) is placed laterally at the anterior and upper part of the thorax, it completes ahead the thoracic belt, to which the member of the same name is attached.

The radius (French : Radius), shorter than the ulna by the length of the olecranon process, is placed at the external side of the fore-arm, extending from the humerus to the carpus. It is broader below than above, slightly curved in its form, and divided into a body and two extremities.

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