The serratus anterior muscle (Latin: serratus magnus; French: muscle dentelé antérieur) - named from its serrated or saw-like anterior border and large size - is an irregular quadrilateral sheet curved to the shape of the side of the thorax. Its anterior attached border has a somewhat sinuous curve and arises from the side of the thorax by nine or ten digitations or teeth, which, by their saw-like appearance, give the muscle its name. The muscle may be divided into an upper, middle, and lower part.

The sterno-cleido-mastoid (French: muscle sterno-cléido-mastoïdien), or sterno-mastoid muscle, named from its attachments, is a strong ribbon-shaped and, bifurcated below, and somewhat constricted in its middle third.

The subclavius muscle (french: Muscle subclavier) - named from its position beneath the clavicle (=clavis) - is almost cylindrical, but may be more accurately described as a thick sheet of the shape of a low obtuse-angled triangle, the obtuse angle being contained between the clavicular attachment and the inner free border of the muscle.

These consist of four muscles arranged in three layers : the first containing the digastric and stylo-hyoid, the second the mylo-hyoid, and the third the genio-hyoid.

The inner or prevertebral group consists of the greater and lesser rectus capitis anticus and the longus colli.

The infra-hyoid muscles form a group of four long flat muscles, arranged in two layers, and enveloped by the deep layer of the cervical fascia.

The outer group is formed by the three scaleni, which pass from the first two s upwards and inwards to the transverse processes.

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