Muscles

We include under this heading of appendices: 1° the aponeuroses, which cover the muscles or even envelop them entirely

On the nose develop four muscles, knowledge in top, the pyramidal one; in bottom, the myrtiforme; on the sides, the transverse and the dilator one of the nostrils.

Muscle in humans has an average density of 1055.

 

All around the oral opening  eleven muscles are laid out: one initially, of annular form, the labial or orbicular one of the lips, which governs its occlusion then a series of ten others which from the various areas of the face, come to fit on its circumference like so many convergent rays. They are, from top to bottom: the common elevator of the wing of the nose and the upper lip; the very elevator of the upper lip; the canine one; the minor zygomatic muscle; the big zygomatic; the buccinator; the risorius; the triangular one of the lips; the square of the chin; the muscle of the bunch of the chin.

The tendon, whether long or short, cylindrical or flattened, joins by one of its extremities with the corresponding muscular body; by the other, it is inserted into various formations which, depending on the case, are a piece of bone, cartilage, fascia, etc., and is then inserted into the muscular body.

The biceps flexor cubiti (French: muscle biceps-brachial) - named from its two heads and its action - is a thick, somewhat flattened fusiform muscle with a bifid upper extremity.

The striated muscles each consist of two distinct parts: 1° a red, soft, contractile part, constituting the muscle proper; 2° a whitish, firm, non-contractile part, forming the tendon.

The subscapularis muscle (French: muscle sous-scapulaire)- named from its position beneath the scapula - is a thick triangular and somewhat multipenniform sheet.

Muscles are characterized by their shapes, insertions and relationships. These characteristics are sometimes subject to variation.

The deltoid muscle (French: muscle Deltoïde; latin : deltoideus) is fleshy from the lateral border and upper surface of the acromion and from the ventral border and upper surface of the lateral third of the clavicle, and tendinous from the spine of the scapula. Some fibre-bundles also at times arise from the deep fascia of the muscle where it overlies and is fused to the fascia of the infraspinatus muscle near the spine.

This is a flat, thin, digastric muscle, extended from the occiput to the forehead (from which circumstance its name is derived), and placed immediately beneath the cranial integument, to which it closely adheres, at the same time that it rests upon the arch of the skull, over which it slides. It consists of two broad but short fleshy bellies, united by an intervening aponeurosis. 

The teres major muscle (french : muscle grand rond)- named from its somewhat cylindrical shape and its size - is a thick ribbon-shaped muscle.

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