Medicine

Sociology is the study of groups and group interactions, societies and social interactions, from small and personal groups to very large groups.

DNA replication has been extremely well studied in prokaryotes primarily because of the small size of the genome and the mutants that are available.

The striated muscles each consist of two distinct parts: 1° a red, soft, contractile part, constituting the muscle proper; 2° a whitish, firm, non-contractile part, forming the tendon.

Heat is familiar to all of us. We can feel heat entering our bodies from the summer Sun or from hot coffee or tea after a winter stroll. We can also feel heat leaving our bodies as we feel the chill of night or the cooling effect of sweat after exercise.

Adenosine triphosphate or ATP is the energy “currency” or carrier of the cell. When cells require an input of energy, they use ATP.

Our states of consciousness change as we move from wakefulness to sleep. We also alter our consciousness through the use of various psychoactive drugs.

The cellular process of transcription generates messenger RNA (mRNA), a mobile molecular copy of one or more genes with an alphabet of A, C, G, and uracil (U).

In aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor is an oxygen molecule, O2. If aerobic respiration occurs, then ATP will be produced using the energy of high-energy electrons carried by NADH or FADH2 to the electron transport chain.

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