The urinary bladder receives several arteries, amongst which, however, may be specially recognised two principal branches, a superior and an inferior vesical artery.

Besides slight differences between the arteries of the two sides, in length and direction, by no means of constant occurrence, the common iliac arteries vary in their place of origin, and in the point at which they divide.




This artery has been tied for aneurism affecting one of its large branches on the back of the pelvis — the gluteal or sciatic.

The common iliac arteries, [a. iliacae communes], commencing at the bifurcation of the aorta, pass downwards and outwards, diverging from each other, and divide opposite the intervertebral substance between the last lumbar vertebra and the sacrum, into two branches, named the internal and external iliac arteries — the former being distributed to the walls and viscera of the pelvis, whilst the latter is prolonged into the lower limb, after having sent two important branches to the walls of the abdomen.

The internal iliac artery [a. iliaca interna; French: Artère iliaque interne ; Syn: hypogastrica, pelvica], short and thick trunk, separates from the external iliac immediately after its origin, and dips into the pelvis to supply the walls and the viscera of that cavity.

The suprarenal or capsular arteries [a. suprarenales], are two very small vessels which arise from the aorta on a level with the superior mesenteric artery, and incline obliquely outwards upon the  crura of the diaphragm to reach the under surface of the suprarenal capsules, to which bodies they are distributed, anastomosing at the same time with the other capsular branches derived from the phrenic and the renal arteries. In the foetus these arteries are of large size.




The common iliac artery, extending in a line from the left side of the umbilicus towards the middle of Poupart's ligament, and being placed at its commencement on a level with the highest part of the crest of the ilium, may be approached in an operation, by dividing the abdominal muscles to a sufficient extent, in the iliac region and a little above this part of the abdomen.




The abdominal aorta ends by dividing into two trunks, named the common iliac arteries. The bifurcation usually takes place on the body of the fourth lumbar vertebra, a little to the left of the middle line. The point here indicated will be found nearly on a level with a line drawn from one crista of the ilium to the other, and is opposite to the left side of the umbilicus. It should, however, be observed, that the place of division is very inconstant in its position, as will be seen from the following statement.

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