The scapula (French : scapula, omoplate), is placed upon the upper and back part of the thorax, occupies the space from the second to the seventh rib, and forms the posterior part of the shoulder. Its form is irregularly triangular and flat. It presents for examination two surfaces, three borders, and three angles.

The patella or knee-pan (French : la rotule), situated in front of the knee-joint, is a sesamoid bone, triangular in shape, developed in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris.

The ulna, (French : ulnlna) is placed at the inner side of the forearm ; it is a long and rather irregular bone, larger at the upper than at the lower extremity, a conformation the reverse of that which obtains in the radius.

The fibula (French: fibula ; péroné)is situated on the lateral side of the leg and, in proportion to its length is the most slender of all the long bones. It is placed nearly parallel to the tibia with which it is connected above and below. In man it is a rudimentary bone and bears none of the weight of the trunk, but is retained on account of the muscles to which it gives origin and its participation in the formation of the ankle-joint. Like other long bones, it is divisible into a shaft and two extremities.

The radius (French : Radius), shorter than the ulna by the length of the olecranon process, is placed at the external side of the fore-arm, extending from the humerus to the carpus. It is broader below than above, slightly curved in its form, and divided into a body and two extremities.

The tibia is the larger bone of the leg; it is situated on the inner side of, and nearly parallel with, the fibula. The upper extremity, or head, consists of two lateral eminences, or tuberosities.


The clavicle (French : la clavicule) is placed laterally at the anterior and upper part of the thorax, it completes ahead the thoracic belt, to which the member of the same name is attached.

The coxal (innominate) bone or hip-bone (os coxae, French: os iliaque or os coxal)  is a large, irregularly shaped bone articulated behind 'with the sacrum, and in front with its fellow of the opposite side, the two bones forming the anterior and side walls of the pelvis. The coxal bone consists of three parts, named ilium, ischium, and pubis, which, though separate in early life, are firmly united in the adult. The three parts meet together and form the acetabulum (or cotyloid fossa), a large, cup-like socket situated near the middle of the lateral surface of the bone for articulation with the head of the femur.

The humerus or arm-bone (french : humérus), the largest bone of the upper extremity, extends from the scapula to the bones of the fore-arm, with each of which it is articulated. Its direction is vertical, with an inclination inwards towards the lower end. Long and irregularly cylindrical in form, the humerus is divisible into a body and two extremities. 

The tibia or shin-bone (French: le tibia)is situated at the front and medial side of the leg and nearly parallel with the fibula. Excepting the femur, it is the largest bone in the skeleton, and alone transmits the weight of the trunk to the foot. It articulates above with the femur, below with the tarsus, and laterally with the fibula. It is divisible into two extremities and a shaft.

The femur (French: le fémur) or thigh bone is the largest and longest bone in the skeleton, and transmits the entire weight of the trunk from the hip to the tibia. In the erect posture, it inclines from above downward and medially, approaching at the lower extremity its fellow of the opposite side, but separated from it above by the width of the true pelvis. It presents for examination a superior extremity, including the head, neck, and two trochanters, an inferior extremity, expanded laterally into two condyles, and a shaft.

The pelvis is composed of four bones: the two coxal or hip-bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx. The hip-bones form the lateral and anterior boundaries, meeting each other in front to form the pubic symphysis [symphysis ossium pubis]; posteriorly they are separated by the sacrum. The interior of the pelvis is divided into the major and minor pelvic cavity.

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