The knee is the largest joint in the body. It is rightly described as a ginglymoid joint, but there is also an arthrodial element; for, in addition to flexion and extension, there is a sliding backward and forward of the tibia upon the femoral condyles, as well as slight rotation round a vertical axis. It is one of the most superficial, and, as far as adaptation of the bony surfaces goes, one of the weakest joints, for in no position are the bones in more than partial contact.

The femur is the largest long bone of the human body and consists of a superior extremity a shaft and an inferior extremity.

All systems of the body are interrelated. A change in one system may affect all other systems in the body, with mild to devastating effects. A failure of urinary continence can be embarrassing and inconvenient, but is not life threatening. The loss of other urinary functions may prove fatal. A failure to synthesize vitamin D is one such example.


The clavicle (French : la clavicule) is placed laterally at the anterior and upper part of the thorax, it completes ahead the thoracic belt, to which the member of the same name is attached.

The pharynx is a vertical, tubular passage, flattened anteroposteriorly, and extending from the base of the cranium above to the beginning of the esophagus below. Posteriorly, it is in contact with the bodies of the upper six cervical vertebrae.

Each palate bone, (os palati,) wedged in between the superior maxillary and sphenoid bones, is common to the cavity of the mouth, nares, and orbit. In its form, this bone somewhat resembles that of the letter l, one part being horizontal, the other vertical.

The serratus anterior muscle (Latin: serratus magnus; French: muscle dentelé antérieur) - named from its serrated or saw-like anterior border and large size - is an irregular quadrilateral sheet curved to the shape of the side of the thorax. Its anterior attached border has a somewhat sinuous curve and arises from the side of the thorax by nine or ten digitations or teeth, which, by their saw-like appearance, give the muscle its name. The muscle may be divided into an upper, middle, and lower part.

The peritoneum, as has been shown, is a serous membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor, and invests or covers to a varying extent the viscera which that cavity contains. Viewed in its very simplest condition, it may be regarded as a closed sac, the inner surface of which is smooth, while the outer surface is rough and is attached to the tissues which surround it.

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