Bones of the face and the skull

The skull is of a spheroidal figure, compressed on the sides, broader behind ihan before, and supported by its base on the vertebral column.

It is divided by anatomists into two parts, the cranium and the face ; the former being composed of eight bones, viz., the occipital, two 'parietal, the frontal, two temporal, the sphenoid, and the ethmoid ; the latter is made up of fourteen bones, viz., two superior maxillary, two malar, two ossa nasi, two ossa palati, two ossa unguis, two inferior turbinated bones, the vomer, and inferior maxilla ; the frontal bone is so situated as to be common to the cranium and face. The bones of the ear are not included in this enumeration, as they belong rather to a special organ than to the skeleton considered as the framework of the body.

The bones of the face are fourteen in number

In order to study the interior of the skull it is necessary to make sections in three directions, sagittal, coronal and horizontal.

The frontal bone, (os frontis, coroaale,) situated at the anterior part of the skull, and upper part of the face, is divisible into two parts (frontal and orbital), differing in size and position: of these, one extends upwards towards the vertex, forming three-fourths of the extent of the bone; the other, inferior and horizontal in its direction, forms the roof of the orbits. To place the bone in its natural position, hold it so that the orbital plates shall look downwards, and the smooth convex surface forwards. 

The skull, when viewed from above, presents an oval outline; the posterior part is broader than the anterior. The bones seen in this view are the frontal, parietals and the interparietal portion of the occipital. In a skull of average width the zygomata come into view, but in very broad skulls they are obscured.

The adult temporal bone (French: os temporal) consists of three parts, so firmly united as to afford little trace of its complex origin. At birth the three parts are easily separable as the squamosal, petrosal, and tympanic.

The occipital bone, (lat.: os occipitis, french: Os occipital) is situated at the posterior part of the base of the skull; broad behind, much narrowed before, of a trapezoid figure, presenting two surfaces, four borders, and four angles. To place the bone in its natural position, hold it so that the great foramen and the articulating processes beside it shall look directly downwards; the thick process in front of the foramen will then project forwards into the base of the Skull, Whilst the broad expanded part behind it arches upwards and a little forwards, forming the posterior wall of the Cavity. 

The lacrimal bones (French: os lacrymal) are extremely thin and delicate, quadrilateral in shape, and situated at the anterior part of the inner wall of the orbit. They are the smallest of the facial bones.

This is the u-shaped bone, so named from some resemblance to the Greek letter v. It is occasionally called the lingual bone, from its important relations with the tongue; it is situated at the base of the tongue, and may be felt between the chin and the thyroid cartilage. It consists of a body, two cornua, and two cornicula.

The mandible [mandibula] or lower jaw-bone is the largest and strongest bone of the face. It supports the mandibular teeth, and by means of a pair of condyles, moves on the skull at the mandibular fossae of the temporal bones. It consists of a horizontal portion — the body —  strongly curved, so as to somewhat resemble in shape a horseshoe, from the ends of which two branches or rami ascend almost at right angles.

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