Anatomy

The vomer bone (Fench: le Vomer) is an irregular four-sided plate of bone constituting the lower portion of the nasal septum. It is usually described as resembling a ploughshare in shape. Each lateral surface is covered with the thick mucous membrane of the nasal sinus, and is traversed by a narrow but well-marked groove, which lodges the naso- palatine nerve from the spheno-palatine ganglion; hence it is sometimes called the naso-palatine groove.

These small bones are named " ungual" from a resemblance, if not in form, at least in thinness and size, to a finger-nail (unguis); they are also called the " lachrymal" bones, from their presenting each a groove, which, with a similar excavation in the nasal process of the superior maxilla, forms the lachrymal canal.

The maxillary bone, (maxilla superior,) is very irregular. It presents an external convex surface, corresponding with the anterior and lateral parts of the face; another, internal, of considerable extent, corresponding with the nasal cavity ; one, superior, smooth, and inclined inwards, forming the floor of the orbit, and surmounted internally by a triangular process, forming the side of the nose ; lastly, a surface which projects horizontally inwards, to form the arch of the palate. The external surface is bounded inferiorly by a thick, dependent border (alveolar), for the lodgment of the teeth; to this as to a common point of union, all the other parts of the bone may be referred.

There are two bones named malar, (os malse, malare, jugale, zygomaticum.) Each is common to the face and orbit, forming the most prominent point of the side of the former, and the greater part of the outer border of the latter. Its form is quadrangular.

The bones which form the appendicular elements of the skullis group are the mandible (lower jaw), malleus, incus, stapes, hyoid, the styloid process of the temporal bone, and the internal pterygoid process of the sphenoid.

The scapula (French : scapula, omoplate), is placed upon the upper and back part of the thorax, occupies the space from the second to the seventh rib, and forms the posterior part of the shoulder. Its form is irregularly triangular and flat. It presents for examination two surfaces, three borders, and three angles.

These bones (often referred to as the bones of Bertin) are two hollow cones, flattened externally in three planes. They may be obtained as distinct ossicles about the fifth year. At this date they are wedged in between the under surface of the pre-sphenoid and the orbital and sphenoidal processes of the palate bone. The apex of the cone is directed backwards and appears near the vaginal process of the sphenoid. Of its three surfaces, the outer one is in relation with the spheno-maxillary fossa, and occasionally extends upwards between the sphenoid

The ulna, (French : ulnlna) is placed at the inner side of the forearm ; it is a long and rather irregular bone, larger at the upper than at the lower extremity, a conformation the reverse of that which obtains in the radius.

The sphenoid bone (French: Sphénoïde) forms a large part of the base of the skull in the region of the anterior and middle fossae. It is very irregular in shape, and is best described as consisting of a body, two pairs of wings, and two pairs of processes.

The radius (French : Radius), shorter than the ulna by the length of the olecranon process, is placed at the external side of the fore-arm, extending from the humerus to the carpus. It is broader below than above, slightly curved in its form, and divided into a body and two extremities.

Each palate bone, (os palati,) wedged in between the superior maxillary and sphenoid bones, is common to the cavity of the mouth, nares, and orbit. In its form, this bone somewhat resembles that of the letter l, one part being horizontal, the other vertical.

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The clavicle (French : la clavicule) is placed laterally at the anterior and upper part of the thorax, it completes ahead the thoracic belt, to which the member of the same name is attached.

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