Abdominal aorta

The aorta, after having passed the diaphragm is thus named. It rests on the bodies of the vertebras, extending from the front of the last dorsal to the fourth lumbar vertebra, a little to the left of the median line, where it usually divides. The anterior surface of the great artery is successively in apposition with the liver, the splenic vein, the pancreas, the third portion of the duodenum, the left renal vein, and the peritoneum. The vena cava lies at its right side, the right crus of the diaphragm being interposed at the upper part of the abdomen ; close to the same side, are the thoracic duct and the azygos vein, which are placed between the aorta and the right crus of the diaphragm. The aorta is surrounded by a mesh of nerves derived from the sympathetic.

The abdominal aorta, [aorta abdominalis, French : aorte abdominale], gives numerous branches, which may be divided into two sets, viz., those which supply the viscera and and those which are distributed to the walls of the abdomen. The former consist of the coeliac artery, the superior mesenteric , the inferieur mesenteric, the capsular, the renal, and the spermatic arteries ; which among the latter are included the phrenic, the lumbar, and the middle sacral arteries. The first three of the visceral branches are single arteries.  

The peroneal artery, [a. peronea] lies deeply along the back part of the leg, close to the fibula : hence its names, peroneal or fibular. Arising from the posterior tibial artery, about an inch below the lower border of the popliteus muscle, it inclines at first obliquely towards the fibula, and then descends nearly perpendicularly along that bone and behind the outer ankle, to reach the side of the os calcis.

The external circumflex artery, [circumfiexa femoris interna s. posterior,] a branch of considerable size, arises from the outer side of the profunda, and, after passing outwards for a short distance beneath the sartorius and rectus muscles, and through the divisions of the anterior crural nerve, gives branches, which may be divided into three sets, according to the directions which they take.

The posterior tibial artery [a. tibialis postica] is situated along the back part of the leg, between the superficial and deep layers of muscles, being firmly bound down to the latter by the deep fascia.

The deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris), is the principal nutritious vessel of the thigh; its branches being mainly distributed to that part of the lower limb, whereas the femoral artery supplies the leg and foot. It is a vessel of considerable calibre, being nearly equal in size to the continuation of the femoral after the origin of this great branch (The artery of the lower limb, after emerging from the abdominal cavity, was described bv Murray as the common femoral, and was regarded by him as dividing into two parts, which he named respectively, the superficial, and the deep femoral arteries. These terms are often conveniently used by surgical writers for easy reference to different parts of the vessel).

The popliteal artery [a. poplitea], at the back of the knee-joint, extends along the lower third of the thigh and the upper part of the leg, reaching from the opening in the great adductor to the lower border of the popliteus muscle. It is continuous above with the femoral, and divides at the lower end into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.

The femoral artery gives off the following branches. Some, small and superficial, which are distributed to the integument and glands of the groin, or ramify on the lower part of the abdomen, viz., the external pudic (superior and inferior), the superficial epigastric, and the superficial circumflex iliac ; the great nutrient artery of the muscles of the thigh, named the deep femoral; several small muscular branches; and lastly, the anastomotic artery, which descends on the inner side of the knee-joint.

The femoral artery is accessible to the surgeon for the application of a ligature without serious difficulty in its entire length ; but as the lower half is deeply placed, the difficulty of reaching this part is greatest, at the same time that the depth at which the vessel lies renders it necessary to divide and disturb the surrounding structures to a greater extent than where the vessel is nearer the surface. For these reasons the upper part of the artery is to be preferred for the performance of the operation adverted to, in all cases in which other circumstances do not control the choice of the surgeon. But the upper part of the femoral artery is not equally eligible for the application of a ligature at all points, in consequence of the position of the branches — an important consideration in the surgical anatomy of this vessel.

The circumflex iliac artery [Latin : circumflexa ilii], smaller than the preceding vessel, arises from the outer side of the iliac artery near Poupart's ligament, and is directed outwards behind that structure to the anterior superior spine of the ilium.

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