The urinary bladder is a sack-like dilatation of the urinary passages which serves as a collecting reservoir, the size and shape of which is dependent upon the degree of distention. Three chief portions may be recognized in it: the middle and larger portion of the bladder is the body; the upper portion, which is distinctly pointed, especially in the newborn, is the vertex; and the lowermost portion, directed toward the perineum, is called the fundus.

The spleen is a large blood-vascular organ closely associated with the lymphatic system.

The vagina (French: le vagin) is a rather capacious and markedly dilatable musculo-mucous canal, which extends from the uterus to the external genitalia. When collapsed it is markedly flattened from before backward, so that its lumen corresponds to the letter H, the anterior and posterior walls being in contact, while small recesses occur on either side. The anterior wall is usually concave posteriorly, the posterior wall being correspondingly convex anteriorly.

The larynx (French: le larynx) is an irregular tubular dilatation of the respiratory tract proper which connects the pharynx with the trachea and transmits air to the actual respiratory passages.


The liver is the largest gland of the human body.It has the shape of a flattened ellipsoid, passes almost transversely across the upper portion of the abdominal cavity, and is composed of two lobes, a much larger right lobe and a smaller left one. It is soft in consistence and has a peculiar brownish-red color.

The urine is secreted by the kidney, whence it passes successively through the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, and urethra into the outer world.

The large intestine is an approximately cylindrical tube from 120 to 150 cm. in length and of variable width. It is composed of two main portions: the ccecum, with the vermiform appendix, and the colon. These two portions, exactly alike and not sharply demarcated, are arranged in a large horseshoe loop about the small intestine, the large intestine becoming continuous with the rectum on the left.

The esophagus is a muscular tube about 25 centimeters in length which is immediately continuous with the lower portion of the pharynx above and with the cardiac portion of the stomach below. It consists of three portions of the cervical, the thoracic, and the abdominal. The thoracic portion is by far the longest, while the abdominal is very short.

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