Comprising the period of time between the dispersion of the pytagorian society in the year B. C. 500, and the foundation of the Alexandrian library in the year B. C. 320.
It is an incontestible fact, that Medicine was practiced and taught in the gymnasiae of Greece, a long time before the Asclepiadae had divulged the secret of their doctrines.(See Plato - Laws : Daniel Leclerc, Hist, de la Medicine : C. Sprengel, Hist, le la Medicine : M. Houdart, Etudes Historiques et Critiques Bur la Doctrine d'Hippocrate. Paris, 1840, in 8vo) There were in these establishments three orders of physicians. A director termed the gymnasiarch, whose duties consisted in regulating the diet of the Athlete, and of the young men who frequented these schools ; a sub-director, or gymnast, who directed the pharmaceutic treatment of the sick ; lastly, subalterns, named jatraliptes, who put up prescriptions, annointed, frictioned, bled, dressed wounds and ulcers, reduced luxations, fractures, etc.
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When the storm of persecution had dissolved the Pythagorian societies, the members that composed it were scattered in different parts of Greece. Being no longer held by the bond of the community, many of them revealed in whole or in part the secrets of their doctrine, and to this circumstance we owe the little light that we possess on the subject.
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There remains to us of the memorials of antiquity, concerning that doctrine, but a single, very incomplete, and very obscure fragment. It is a collection of sentences, which are attributed to Lysis, a Pythagorian philosopher, and the friend and preceptor of Epaminondas ; but it would be impossible for us to avail ourselves of the doctrines of this precious document, without the able commentary of M. Fabre d' Olivet. Thanks to this skillful interpreter, we are able to lift a corner of the veil that covers the famous dogmas of the philosopher of Samos.(Vers Dores de Pythagore, explained and translated into French verse, by M. d'Olivet. Paris, 1813)
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We have already said, that nearly everywhere the temples of Esculapius were dispensaries, in which advice was given and remedies administered, and that the young sacerdotal aspirants were there trained in the practice of Medicine. The Asclepiadae had preserved, until that epoch, the tradition of the Egypto-Indian school, which only allowed
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Until now, we have groped our way, having to guide us in the obscurity of remote ages only feeble lights, scattered here and there at long intervals. But now we have reached an epoch, where science is striped of its mystic vail, and reveals her secrets in open day. The priests who had so long been in possession of the doctrine of the people, yield now the grasp of the scientific scepter to the philosophers: they retained only the exclusive control of sacred rites, the monopoly oi religious ceremonies. Never was a happier revolution accomplished with less effusion of blood ; the mind rests with satisfaction on the circumstances which prepared and accompanied it.
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After the theory of coction and crisis, that which prevails the most in the Hippocratic books, is the doctrine of the four elements, or the four elementary qualities, heat, cold, dryness and moisture, and the four cardinal humors, blood, bile, atrabile and phlegm. This doctrine was supposed to be an invention of the father of Greek medicine. Such is the opinion of all the commentators and historiographers, among others Galen, who extended and perfected it in his manner, and it reigned, exclusively, after him. The theory of four elements and four humors, harmonizes very well with
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Hippocrates was born in the isle of Cos, of a family in which the practice of Medicine was hereditary. They pretended to trace their ancestry, on the male side, to Esculapius, and on the female side to Hercules. They count as many as seven of its members that had borne the name of Hippocrates ; but the most celebrated of all was the
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semiotics occupies a very considerable place in the medical works of the Asclepiadae. Two of the most complete and best achieved treatises of the collection - that on Prognostics, and the second book on Predictions, or Prorrhetics - are devoted to this branch of Pathology. Beside, the first book on Predictions and Coan Prenotions, a species of treatises believed to belong anterior to Hippocrates, as well as the book on Dreams, which is appended to the treatise on Regimen, relate entirely to the same subject. Now, all these portions united, form more than
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