The superior vesical artery [a. vesicalis sup.] is that part of the hypogastric artery (in the foetus) which remains pervious after the changes that take place subsequently to birth. It extends from the anterior division of the internal iliac to the side of the bladder. It distributes numerous branches to the upper part and sides of the bladder, from one of the lowest of which, a slender artery reaches the vas deferens, and accompanies that duct in its course to the back of the testicle, where it anastomoses with the spermatic artery. This is the artery of the vas deferens, or deferent artery. Other small branches ramify on the lower end of the ureter.
The inferior vesical artery, ([a. vesicalis inf.], vesico-prostatic : vesicalis ima, — Haller), derived usually from the anterior division of the internal iliac, is directed downwards to the lower part of the bladder, where it divides into branches which are distributed to the base of the bladder, to the side of the prostate, and to the vesiculae seminales. One offset, to be presently described, descends upon the rectum.
The branches upon the prostate communicate more or less freely upon that gland with the corresponding vessels of the opposite side, and, according to Haller, with the perineal arteries likewise.
Middle hemorrhoidal artery [a. haemorrhoidalis media]. The branch supplied by the inferior vesical artery to the rectum is the middle haemorrhoidal. It anastomoses with the branches of the other haemorrhoidal arteries.
Besides the superior and inferior vesical arteries, other smaller branches will be found to reach the bladder, and usually one slender vessel which is distributed particularly to the under surface of the vesiculae seminales.