Closely associated with the lymphatic capillaries and vessels is a group of glandular structures known as lymphoid organs. They consist, essentially, of groups of round lymphoid cells, lying in a meshwork of reticulum fibers, and having often a definite relationship to the blood or lymph vessels.
The lymphatic vessels
The lymph which enters the lymphatic capillaries passes over into collecting vessels (ducts), which carry it through the lymph-glands (nodes) to the large veins at the base of the neck. The lymph-vessels course in the loose subcutaneous tissues, in the connective tissues between muscles and organs, often accompanying the arteries and veins, sometimes forming networks around them. An idea of their arrangement can be best obtained by glancing at the illustrations of the lymphatics of special regions.
The lymphatic capillaries
The lymphatic capillary, like the blood-capillary, is the portion of the lymphatic system which is chiefly concerned in the specific function of this system. In the blood-capillaries, where the blood is separated from the outside tissues by a single layer of flat endothelial cells, there occurs the interchange of fluid substances and of cells, while the heart, arteries and veins serve to transport the blood, modified in the capillaries, to other parts of the body. Similarly in the lymphatic system, it is in the capillaries, both those most peripheral and those in the lymph nodes, where the absorption and interchange of fluid substances and of cells takes place. Consequently it becomes of prime importance to obtain a clear understanding of the structure of the lymphatic capillaries, their relation to the other tissues, and their mode of functioning. At the outset, however, it must be admitted that our knowledge on this subject is far from complete.
The articulations of the vertebral column
There are two distinct sets of articulations in the vertebral column:
Those between the bodies and intervertebral discs which form synchondroses and which are amphiarthrodial as regards movement.
Those between the articular processes which form arthrodial joints.
The ligaments which unite the various parts may also be divided into two sets, viz. - immediate, or those that bind together parts which are in contact; and intermediate, or those that bind together parts which are not in contact.
The ligaments and joints between the skull and vertebral column, and between the atlas and epistropheus
The Atlas is articulated with the occiput and the axis (Epistropheus).
The mandibular articulation
The mandibular articulation is a diarthrosis, more precisely a condylarthrosis.
Classification of articulations
Joints may be classified from different ways.
The constituents of an articulation
The section devoted to the Articulations or Joints deals with the union of the various and dissimilar parts of the human skeleton. The followiing structures enter into the formation of joints. Bones constitute the basis of most joints. The long bones articulate by their ends, the flat by their edges, and the short at various parts on their surfaces. The articular ends are usually expanded, and are composed of cancellous tissue, surrounded by a dense and strong shell of compact tissue.
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