The pharynx is a vertical, tubular passage, flattened anteroposteriorly, and extending from the base of the cranium above to the beginning of the esophagus below. Posteriorly, it is in contact with the bodies of the upper six cervical vertebrae.
The peritoneum, as has been shown, is a serous membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor, and invests or covers to a varying extent the viscera which that cavity contains. Viewed in its very simplest condition, it may be regarded as a closed sac, the inner surface of which is smooth, while the outer surface is rough and is attached to the tissues which surround it.
The urinary bladder is a sack-like dilatation of the urinary passages which serves as a collecting reservoir, the size and shape of which is dependent upon the degree of distention. Three chief portions may be recognized in it: the middle and larger portion of the bladder is the body; the upper portion, which is distinctly pointed, especially in the newborn, is the vertex; and the lowermost portion, directed toward the perineum, is called the fundus.
The stomach [Latin: ventriculus ; gaster; French: estomac] is a dilation of the alimentary canal succeeding the esophagus. In the stomach the food is mixed with the gastric juice and reduced to a viscid, pulpy liquid, the chyme [chymus], which undergoes a certain amount of digestion and absorption before passing into the duodenum.
The heart is formed by the blending in the median fine of two longitudinal endothelial tubes lying ventral to the fore-gut of the early embryo. Each tube is partially surrounded laterally by the splanchnic mesoderm which forms a septum between the right and left sides of the coelomic cavity. The blended endothelial tubes form the endocardium. The splanchnic mesoderm in relation to the endocardium becomes the myoepicardium, and the double layer connecting the heart dorsally and ventrally with the somatic mesoderm becomes the (temporary) dorsal and ventral mesocardia. The somatic mesoderm of the heart region becomes the pericardium.
The pericardium is a cone-shaped, fibro-serous sac which surrounds the heart and contains a small amount of fluid [liquor pericardii]. Its apex is above at the root of the great vessels, and its base below, adherent to the diaphragm. Its connection with the diaphragm is in part to the central tendon and in part to the muscle, especially on the left side. It consists of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. The virtual space between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is commonly called the pericardial cavity.
The heart [cor] is a hollow organ principally composed of muscle, the myocardium. It is lined internally by endocardium which is continuous with the intima of the blood-vessels. Externally, it is covered by the epicardium, a serous membrane continuous with the serous lining of the pericardium. The form of the heart, when removed from the body without previous hardening, is that of a fairly regular truncated cone. The base [basis cordis] is poorly circumscribed but corresponds, in a general way, to the area occupied by the roots of the great vessels and the portion of the heart-wall between them. The base of the heart is held in position (Not necessarily fixed, for during systole the base performs a greater excursion than does the apex.) chiefly by the great vessels, which are attached to the pericardium; the remainder of the organ is capable of free movement within the pericardial cavity. The interior of the heart is longitudinally divided, into right and left cavities, by a septum passing from base to apex. Each cavity is subdivided into an atrium [atrium cordis] and a ventricle [ventriculus cordis], the former receiving the ultimate venous trunks and the latter giving rise to the main arteries. Thus the left atrium receives the four pulmonary veins, and the right atrium the superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus; the aorta issues from the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery from the right. The ventricles, which constitute the major portion of the heart, may be recognized by their very thick walls. The atria have thinner walls and are less capacious than the ventricles; projecting from each is a diverticulum or auricle [auricula cordis]. The auricles (which receive their name from their resemblance to dog's ears) partially embrace the roots of the pulmonary artery and aorta.
The globe or ball of the eye is a composite structure of spheroidal form, placed in the fore part of the orbital cavity, and receiving the thick stem of the optic nerve behind. The recti and oblique muscles closely surround the greater part of the eyeball, and are capable of changing its position within certain limits: the lids, with the plica semilunaris and caruncle, are in contact with its covering of conjunctiva in front; and behind it is supported by a quantity of loose fat and connective tissue.
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