The peritoneum, as has been shown, is a serous membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor, and invests or covers to a varying extent the viscera which that cavity contains. Viewed in its very simplest condition, it may be regarded as a closed sac, the inner surface of which is smooth, while the outer surface is rough and is attached to the tissues which surround it.
The humerus or arm-bone (french : humérus), the largest bone of the upper extremity, extends from the scapula to the bones of the fore-arm, with each of which it is articulated. Its direction is vertical, with an inclination inwards towards the lower end. Long and irregularly cylindrical in form, the humerus is divisible into a body and two extremities.
The serratus anterior muscle (Latin: serratus magnus; French: muscle dentelé antérieur) - named from its serrated or saw-like anterior border and large size - is an irregular quadrilateral sheet curved to the shape of the side of the thorax. Its anterior attached border has a somewhat sinuous curve and arises from the side of the thorax by nine or ten digitations or teeth, which, by their saw-like appearance, give the muscle its name. The muscle may be divided into an upper, middle, and lower part.
The deltoid muscle (French: muscle Deltoïde; latin : deltoideus) is fleshy from the lateral border and upper surface of the acromion and from the ventral border and upper surface of the lateral third of the clavicle, and tendinous from the spine of the scapula. Some fibre-bundles also at times arise from the deep fascia of the muscle where it overlies and is fused to the fascia of the infraspinatus muscle near the spine.
The trapezius (or cucullaris, as it has been called from its resemblance to a cowl = cucullus ; french : muscle trapèze) is named from τραπέζι, a table, on account of the four-sided figure formed by the muscles of the two sides. It is a fan-shaped sheet forming an obtuse-angled triangle, the long side of which corresponds with the spine.
The spinal cord [medulla spinalis] is the lower (caudal) and most attenuated portion of the central nervous system. It is approximately cylindrical in form and terminates conically. Its average length in the adult is 45 cm. (18 in.) in the male and 42 cm. in the female. It weighs from 26 to 28 grams or about 2 per cent, of the entire cerebro-spinal axis.
After birth it grows more rapidly and for a longer period than the encephalon, increasing in weight more than sevenfold, while the brain increases less than half that amount. Its specific gravity is given as 1.038.
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