The movements of breathing are innervated from a nervous centre situated in the medulla oblongata, in the grey substance of the floor of the fourth ventricle a little above the point of the calamus scriptorius. The part above this may be sliced away without stopping the respiratory movements, but they completely cease when the part indicated is destroyed.
The kidney is covered by a fibrous capsule, which is slightly attached at its inner surface to the proper substance of the organ by means of very fine bundles of areolar tissue and minute blood vessels.
From the healthy kidney, therefore, it may be easily torn off without much injury to the subjacent cortical portion of the organ. At the hilus of the kidney, it becomes continuous with the external coat of the upper and dilated part of the ureter.
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