There are different varieties of articulations in the trunk.
Articulations of the the upper extremity
Important for the orientation of the hand in space. They gather five articulations: three drift true and two spaces.
Classification of articulations
Joints may be classified from different ways.
The constituents of an articulation
The section devoted to the Articulations or Joints deals with the union of the various and dissimilar parts of the human skeleton. The followiing structures enter into the formation of joints. Bones constitute the basis of most joints. The long bones articulate by their ends, the flat by their edges, and the short at various parts on their surfaces. The articular ends are usually expanded, and are composed of cancellous tissue, surrounded by a dense and strong shell of compact tissue.
The ligaments and joints between the skull and vertebral column, and between the atlas and epistropheus
The Atlas is articulated with the occiput and the axis (Epistropheus).
The mandibular articulation
The mandibular articulation is a diarthrosis, more precisely a condylarthrosis.
The articulations of the vertebral column
There are two distinct sets of articulations in the vertebral column:
Those between the bodies and intervertebral discs which form synchondroses and which are amphiarthrodial as regards movement.
Those between the articular processes which form arthrodial joints.
The ligaments which unite the various parts may also be divided into two sets, viz. - immediate, or those that bind together parts which are in contact; and intermediate, or those that bind together parts which are not in contact.
The articulations of the sacrum and the vertebrae
As in the intervertebral articulations, so in the union of the first portion of the sacrum with the last lumbar vertebra, there are two sets of joints -viz. (a) Class. -False Synchondrosis. (b) Class. -Diarthrosis. Subdivision. -Arihrodia (a) a synchondrosis, between the bodies and intervertebral disc; and (b) a pair of arthrodial joints, between the articular processes. The union is effected by the following ligaments, which are common to the vertebral column: -(i) anterior, and (ii) posterior longitudinal; (iii) lateral or short vertebral; (iv) capsular; (v) ligamenta flava; (vi) supraspinous and (vii) interspinous ligaments. Two special accessory ligaments on either side, viz., the sacro-lumbar and the ilio-lumbar, connect the pelvis with the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae.
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