The coxal (innominate) bone or hip-bone (os coxae, French: os iliaque or os coxal) is a large, irregularly shaped bone articulated behind 'with the sacrum, and in front with its fellow of the opposite side, the two bones forming the anterior and side walls of the pelvis. The coxal bone consists of three parts, named ilium, ischium, and pubis, which, though separate in early life, are firmly united in the adult. The three parts meet together and form the acetabulum (or cotyloid fossa), a large, cup-like socket situated near the middle of the lateral surface of the bone for articulation with the head of the femur.
The vomer bone (Fench: le Vomer) is an irregular four-sided plate of bone constituting the lower portion of the nasal septum. It is usually described as resembling a ploughshare in shape. Each lateral surface is covered with the thick mucous membrane of the nasal sinus, and is traversed by a narrow but well-marked groove, which lodges the naso- palatine nerve from the spheno-palatine ganglion; hence it is sometimes called the naso-palatine groove.
The pharynx is a vertical, tubular passage, flattened anteroposteriorly, and extending from the base of the cranium above to the beginning of the esophagus below. Posteriorly, it is in contact with the bodies of the upper six cervical vertebrae.
The serratus anterior muscle (Latin: serratus magnus; French: muscle dentelé antérieur) - named from its serrated or saw-like anterior border and large size - is an irregular quadrilateral sheet curved to the shape of the side of the thorax. Its anterior attached border has a somewhat sinuous curve and arises from the side of the thorax by nine or ten digitations or teeth, which, by their saw-like appearance, give the muscle its name. The muscle may be divided into an upper, middle, and lower part.
Each palate bone, (os palati,) wedged in between the superior maxillary and sphenoid bones, is common to the cavity of the mouth, nares, and orbit. In its form, this bone somewhat resembles that of the letter l, one part being horizontal, the other vertical.
The peritoneum, as has been shown, is a serous membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor, and invests or covers to a varying extent the viscera which that cavity contains. Viewed in its very simplest condition, it may be regarded as a closed sac, the inner surface of which is smooth, while the outer surface is rough and is attached to the tissues which surround it.
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